The EU Omnibus Directive is a new law that came into force on January 7, 2020. It is also known as the Enforcement and Modernization Directive and was written to help protect businesses and consumers in the European Union.

This regulation applies to all companies conducting business within the EU and contains many provisions designed to ensure fair treatment for consumers.

This article will discuss the purpose of the EU Omnibus Directive, what is included in the new law, to whom it applies, and what businesses must do to comply.

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What is the EU Omnibus Directive?

As previously stated, the EU Omnibus Directive is a directive introduced to expand the scope of the consumer rights framework.

This directive aims to provide more robust safeguards for European shoppers in a rapidly changing marketplace by focusing on modernizing existing regulations and increasing protections for vulnerable consumers.

It sets out to cover digital content, goods, and services.

The European Union created the Omnibus Directive to harmonize EU consumer protection laws in this area and initiate four significant changes.

These include:

  • The Consumer Rights Directive (2011/83/EU)
  • The Price Indications Directive (98/6/EU)
  • The Unfair Contract Terms Directive (93/13/EEC)
  • The Unfair Commercial Practices Directive (2005/29/EC)

It also slips in new definitions like "online marketplace" and "ranking" while amending terms such as "sales contract" and "digital service."

The Background of Omnibus

The Background of Omnibus

The EU Omnibus Directive is an essential part of the EU's New Deal for Consumers initiative, which was launched to strengthen EU consumer law and update existing consumer protection rules to reflect changing market conditions.

This important initiative was adopted on April 11, 2018, and includes two primary proposals: COM(2018) 184 and COM(2018) 185.

In addition to these proposals, several other EU instruments were also implemented as part of this initiative. These include the EU Omnibus Directive and the Directive on Representative Actions, both of which came into force shortly after their adoption.

Ultimately, with the help of these initiatives, the EU has taken significant steps toward ensuring that all consumers are protected from illegal or unfair business practices across the region.

Let's take a deeper look at a major issue involved that led to the creation of the law.

Exchanging Personal Data for Goods and Services

There is no denying that digital content and services have become an increasingly important part of our daily lives. To access these digital resources, it is often necessary to provide personal data, such as an email address or phone number.

While this can seem like a small price to pay for the convenience and benefits that digital content and services offer, there are specific concerns about the nature of these transactions.

For example, consider the nature of the transaction in question.

Consumers are essentially making a trade or payment by providing personal data in exchange for digital content or services. This means that digital traders (companies) must be fully transparent in their Terms and Conditions agreements when disclosing this fact.

After all, consumers should always be given clear information about how companies use their personal data and what they stand to gain by sharing it.

With these considerations in mind, it is clear that the issue of digital data transactions merits close attention from businesses and consumers alike.

Does the EU Omnibus Directive Apply to Your Business?

Suppose you engage in online transactions, and your customers reside in the EU, whether your company is based in the EU or elsewhere. In that case, you must bring your company in line with the directive to ensure that the rights of your customers are protected at all times.

Requirements of the EU Omnibus Directive

Requirements of the EU Omnibus Directive

The EU Omnibus Directive was designed to give consumers more rights and place more restrictions on businesses to protect them better.

The directive makes several significant changes to existing consumer framework legislation, including The right to receive necessary pre-contractual information and putting restrictions on price manipulation.

Here are some of the more critical requirements to which you should pay attention.

New Consumer Rights

As the EU Omnibus Directive recently expanded consumer rights to include transactions involving digital goods, consumers have more options and protections when it comes to purchasing items like:

  • Ebooks
  • Music
  • Software

This means that consumers can enjoy the same benefits and protections under EU law as they would for traditional purchases, including the right to:

  • Receive necessary pre-contractual information
  • The right to withdraw within 14 days of purchase

An exception to the above arises when consumers provide personal information, which is processed only to provide the specified digital content, or a company must hand it over because of a legal requirement.

Business Restrictions

The EU Omnibus Directive is landmark legislation that is aimed at making pricing more transparent for customers. In particular, the directive states that businesses must be forthright about any discounts or special offers that they may offer to their customers.

Specifically, under the EU Omnibus Directive, a trader must indicate the base price to which the discount is being applied if they say that such a discount is available.

This measure seeks to prevent traders from artificially manipulating prices by suggesting that there is a discount when there may not be one in reality.

However, there are some exceptions to this general rule, and products such as dairy that can expire or deteriorate quickly may not be required to meet these strict pricing requirements.

Some specific examples include the following:

  • Automatic price changes based on individual consumer data (e.g., price increases on specific products or services for a specific user based on recent buying age or history)
  • Automatic price changes reflecting seasonal periods (e.g., price increases on hotels during summer break)

Marketplace Transparency

Online marketplaces play an ever more important role in today's interconnected world, helping to make it easier than ever for consumers to access a wide range of products and services.

However, as these online marketplaces have become more popular, it has also become clear that they must give consumers up-front awareness of their rights.

This includes informing users about basic consumer protections under the law, such as the right to receive a full refund or compensation if they have been wrongfully denied their rights.

Furthermore, online marketplaces must also be transparent about whom consumers can turn to in a dispute or complaint.

By empowering consumers with this kind of information, online marketplaces can help build trust and confidence between buyers and sellers, ultimately helping to create a safer and more productive online marketplace environment for all.

With that said, online marketplaces must be open about the following:

  • Whether a seller is a private individual or a professional trader. If a seller is a professional trader, they need to follow the relevant consumer protection laws, but if they're a private individual, they won't need to.
  • What provisions for consumer protection apply to any given purchase.
  • How the obligation for compliance will be shared between the seller and the online marketplace.
  • What metrics they use to rank search results (e.g., price, rating, purchase history, or a combination), including the role and importance of each of these parameters in determining the ranking.

Prohibition on Fake Reviews

One of the primary provisions in the directive is a ban on fake reviews, which was introduced to help increase transparency and accountability.

For example, it blacklists review manipulations, including:

  • Putting up fake reviews
  • Shifting endorsements from one product to another
  • Keeping paid search rankings undisclosed
  • Negative review deletion
  • Making the claim that consumer reviews have been verified when they haven't been

By outlawing dishonest reviews and other forms of false advertising, the EU Omnibus Directive aims to make sure that consumers have all the details needed to make informed decisions when shopping online.

Additionally, it safeguards businesses from unfair competition and helps to reduce overall marketplace fraud.

Providing the Identity of the Seller

It is critical that all those selling online be upfront about their status as a trader or non-trader so that buyers can make informed decisions about the goods and services being exchanged.

The directive demands that consumers be informed about whether the person selling the goods or services is a trader (someone who owns a business) or a non-trader (a non-business owner selling things without their own business).

If a customer purchases something from a non-trader, they won't be covered by the same consumer protection guarantees as if they'd bought from a trader.

Automatic Online Purchases

With the rise of online shopping, many businesses have turned to automated software to help them manage the buying process.

However, new rules introduced in the Omnibus Directive will forbid business owners from using these software programs. The thinking is that banning this software will prevent companies from unfairly reselling items at a higher price.

Business owners who break these rules will face severe penalties, including a possible ban from operating in online marketplaces.

The new regulations are designed to level the playing field for consumers and help to ensure they can get honest and fair deals on whatever they wish to purchase online.

Communications Between Companies and Consumers

At its core, the EU Omnibus Directive is all about promoting efficient and reliable communication between businesses and their customers.

In order to achieve this goal, it allows companies to utilize a wide range of online communication methods, as long as they can maintain a written trail of correspondence and enable customers to track their communications with the company easily.

Some examples of such communication methods include:

  • Conversational AI
  • Speech-based assistants
  • Chatbots

These technologies have become increasingly popular due to their ability to streamline interactions with customers and ensure consistent messaging across multiple channels.

The Impact of the EU Omnibus Directive on Consumers

The Impact of the EU Omnibus Directive on Consumers

Thanks to the EU Omnibus Directive, consumers now have more rights and protections when buying digital goods and services online.

This means that if they are harmed by unfair business practices such as fake reviews or deceptive marketing tactics, they can seek individual remedies for their grievances.

Additionally, the increased transparency in online marketplaces will help consumers make more informed decisions when buying the products that fit their needs.

With these new consumer protections in place, consumers can benefit from a healthier, more competitive online marketplace.

The Impact of the EU Omnibus Directive on Companies

Thanks to the EU Omnibus Directive, businesses today are facing an array of new standards and restrictions.

With its strict standards governing everything from pricing practices and transparency to data protection, this law requires companies to rethink their existing processes completely.

As a result, many companies have been forced to overhaul their terms and services, ensure greater transparency in their processes, and develop new methods for protecting consumers' personal data.

How to Comply With the EU Omnibus Directive

How to Comply With the EU Omnibus Directive

Complying with the EU Omnibus Directive may be challenging, particularly if you're a new company. Many of the regulations may seem straightforward, but getting them right can be tricky.

To help you stay on track, here are some of the key areas to review in light of the EU Omnibus Directive.

Look Over Your Customer Data

The first thing you'll want to do is look over your customer data. Complying with this directive requires that you have consent from your customers before collecting or storing any information, so it's essential that your records are up to date.

You should also make sure that any third-party vendors you work with are aware of their obligations under the directive and are equipped to comply.

Review Your Marketing Practices

You should also review your marketing practices, paying particular attention to any forms or sign-up pages that collect information from users.

The directive makes clear what types of information must be included in these forms, so your sign-up process must comply fully in order to run legitimate marketing campaigns within the European Union.

Review Your Data Flows and Security Measures

Reviewing your data flows is vital to understanding where EU citizens' data is going and how it's being used. This will help you ascertain whether you need to take extra steps to protect this information in accordance with the EU Omnibus Directive.

Additionally, reviewing your security measures will ensure that EU citizens' data is safe and secure while in your possession. EU residents have a right to know that their data is being protected, so it's essential to be transparent about your security measures.

Verify Consumer Reviews

As we noted above, the EU Omnibus Directive prohibits the use of fake reviews. To comply, businesses must therefore review and update their existing processes for verifying consumer reviews in order to ensure that every review posted is genuine and authentic.

This might involve using enhanced algorithms or crowdsourcing techniques or adopting more stringent criteria for accepting reviews.

As you evaluate how you will go about verifying the legitimacy of customer reviews, consider the following.

Evaluate Your Pricing Processes

There are a few crucial things to bear in mind when setting prices for goods in the European Union.

First, all prices must be visible to customers for at least 30 days in their respective member states. Secondly, if you use any personalized or automated pricing processes, you must disclose this information in your listings.

Review Existing Terms and Services for Digital Services or Goods

Whether you are selling digital goods or services, it is essential that you review and renew your current terms and services in order to ensure compliance with the new regulations.

In particular, you must be clear and upfront with consumers about how they can exercise their traditional consumer rights like the right to return an item after purchase or request a refund if they are not satisfied.

By fully understanding these new requirements, you will be able to provide your customers with the high-quality service they have come to anticipate while also staying on top of regulatory changes.

How Will the EU Omnibus Directive Be Enforced?

How Will the EU Omnibus Directive Be Enforced?

The EU Omnibus Directive establishes key principles and requirements around consumer protection, leaving enforcement to each member state.

In other words, how each EU member state chooses to implement the provisions of the EU Omnibus Directive into their national legal frameworks is up to them.

Many have argued that leaving enforcement to each EU member state could cause problems. Different countries may have different interpretations of the rules laid out in the EU Omnibus Directive.

This could ultimately lead to inconsistencies in how the directive is implemented across different jurisdictions.

However, recent efforts by EU policymakers suggest that this concern may not be quite justified. In 2018, EU leaders announced a new initiative called the New Deal for Consumers, which seeks to modernize EU consumer law and make it easier for consumers to enforce their rights.

Under this new initiative, each member state will be required to incorporate the provisions of the EU Omnibus Directive into their national legislation by May 28, 2022.

Penalties and Fines for Non-Compliance

If you don't adhere to the EU Omnibus Directive, you can face heavy fines similar to those provided for under the EU's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).

The EU Omnibus Directive levies the following penalties if you violate the first three directives that make up the existing consumer rights legislation.

If companies provide goods or services to customers in an EU member state, they could be fined up to 4% of their annual turnover. A fine of 2 million euros could be levied if it's impossible to calculate that company's turnover.

Each member state has the discretion to decide what the fine will be based on several factors. These include the nature of the offense, the gravity and scale of the offense, and the financial consequences of the activity for the business.

There may also be aggravating or mitigating factors that come into play.

If a company violates the fourth directive, it may face a hefty fine from the EU member state in which it is selling its services or products.

This fine will be determined based on whether the contractual term that was violated is deemed unfair under national law and whether it has been declared so by a final court decision.

This means that there is no set way to determine precisely how much a business will be fined if it breaks this directive.

However, it is vital to keep in mind that whatever amount you do end up being penalized with may be significant, so it is in every company's interest to err on the side of caution.


The new EU Directive, known as the Omnibus Directive, aims to strengthen consumer rights by enhancing enforcement measures and increasing transparency requirements.

To implement the Directive, EU Member States must adopt national implementation measures by the end of 2021, with the new requirements coming into force by May 2022.

This directive will be of particular benefit to businesses dealing with online B2C transactions and companies providing digital services to consumers where payment is involved.

By ensuring that enforcement mechanisms are more robust and that transparency requirements are standardized across all EU member states, the Omnibus Directive will ultimately help protect and empower consumers in a rapidly-evolving digital landscape.